Task 32
Task 32
SHC Task 32

Advanced Storage Concepts in Low Energy Buildings

Project (Task) Publications

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The following are publications developed under Task 32:

General Publications

Ecostock Conference 2006
June 2006 - PDF 0.59MB - Posted: 2008-01-01
By: Jean-Christophe Hadorn
Paper presenting the work of IEA SHC Task 32. 9 pages
ISES Conference 2005
August 2005 - PDF 0.47MB - Posted: 2008-01-01
Editor: Chris Bales
Poster Presenting IEA SHC Task 32
Thermal Energy Storage for Solar and Low Energy Buildings - State of the Art Thermal Energy Storage for Solar and Low Energy Buildings - State of the Art
June 2005 - Posted: 2007-06-01
Editor: Jean-Christophe Hadorn
No such book on thermal heat storage since 10 years! 170 pages.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme
What is IEA SHC Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings” ?
Acknowledgements
Glossary
Task 32 participants and authors
1 Scope of this document : Heat and cold storage for solar and low energy buildings by Jean-Christophe Hadorn
2 The need for storage of heat and cold in low energy buildings by Jean-Christophe Hadorn
PART I STORAGE IN THE BUILDING STRUCTURE
3 Thermal storage in building structures: thermally activated building systems (tabs) by Beat Lehmann, Robert Weber, Jean-Christophe Hadorn
4 Storage in the building : Direct Solar Floor by Thomas Letz
PART II STORAGE IN WATER
5 Combistores by Wolfgang Streicher, Chris Bales
6 Combisystem performance investigation by Michel Haller, Peter Vogelsanger
7 Insulation materials for advanced water storages by Jørgen M. Schultz
PART III PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL STORAGE
8 A brief history of PCMs for heat storage by Stephane Citherlet
9 Ice storage by Motoi Yamaha
10 Storage techniques with Phase Change Materials by Luisa F. Cabeza
11 Microencapsulated PCM Slurries by Andreas Heinz, Wolfgang Streicher
PART IV SORPTION AND CHEMICAL STORAGE
12 Sorption and thermo-chemical storage by Chris Bales, Paul Gantenbein, Andreas Hauer, Dagmar Jaehnig, Henner Kerskes, Hans-Martin Henning, Tomas Nuñez, Klaas Visscher, Eberhard Laevemann, Matthias Peltzer
13 Storage of solar energy in chemical reactions by Jacob Van Berkel
14 Conclusions by Jean-Christophe Hadorn
ISBN: 84-8409-877-X
Order - 35.00 EUR

Subtask A: Methods and Evaluation of Concepts

Performances of Solar Combisystems with Advanced Storage Concepts
Report A3 of Subtask A
December 2007 - PDF 0.59MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
Editor: Thomas Letz
In the present report, simulation results for nine different systems are presented: five for systems using water storages, one for a system using a storage with Phase Change Material (PCM), and three for systems using chemical or sorption storages. Curves have been drawn for two indicators: the thermal end the extended Fractional energy savings. These characteristic curves allow seeing at one glance how a system performs. They are similar to the characteristic curves of solar collectors, which allow visualising the performances of different concepts. 46 pages
Method and Comparison of Advanced Storage Concepts
Report A4 of Subtask A
December 2007 - PDF 0.3MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
By: Jean-Christophe Hadorn, Thomas Letz, Michel Haller
This report presents the criteria that Task 32 has used to evaluate and compare several storage concepts part of a solar combisystem and a comparison of storage solutions in a system. Criteria have been selected based on relevance and simplicity. When values can not be assessed for storage techniques to new to be fully developed, we used more qualitative data. 29 pages
The Extended FSC Procedure for Larger Storage Sizes
Report A1 of Subtask A
December 2007 - PDF 0.43MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Thomas Letz
In task 26 "Solar Combisystems", a new characterization method had been proposed, allowing to summarize the behaviour of a whole combisystem with a simple parabolic equation giving the thermal or extended fractional energy savings according to a new parameter called Fraction Solar Consumption (FSC). 19 pages
The Reference Heating System, the Template Solar System of Task 32
Report A2 of Subtask A
May 2007 - PDF 0.54MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
By: Richard Heimrath and Michel Haller
This work defines reference conditions and a reference simulation environment for the simulation of solar combisystems for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation and space heating (SH) for various European climates and a range of building loads. These will be used for simulation studies within the IEA-SHC Task 32 by all participants who intend to compare their new products or ideas with the current state of the art or with other products and system approaches. 55 pages.

To access the data set, email secretariat@iea-shc.org to obtain the needed password.

Subtask B: Chemical and Sorption Storage

Store Models for Chemical and Sorption Storage Units
Report B5 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.65MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
Editor: Chris Bales
Storage models have been developed for four of the storage concepts that have been studied within Subtask B of IEA-SHC Task 32. For each model, the basic function of the store is described in addition to the model itself. The main assumptions and limitations of each model are stated. Finally details are supplied about the validation of the model. 30 pages
Simulation Report - System: ECN TCM Model
Report B6.1 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.27MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
By: H.A. Zondag
The ECN Thermo-Chemical Materials (TCM) heat storage system is an absorption process that is based on the hydration of a solid TCM salt. At this moment, the development of this system is still in a very early stage. The research in this stage focuses on materials characterization (now mainly on the hydration of MgSO4 powder). The outlook for the future is to develop a seasonal storage system for solar heat with the solid absorption material that will be selected. 22 pages
Simulation Report - System: Closed-Cycle Sorption Storage "MODESTORE"
Report B6.2 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.65MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
By: Dagmar Jaehnig
The system simulated in this study is based on the pilot plant system tested within the project MODESTORE (EU-Project Contract No: NNE5/2001/979 and an Austrian national project within the program ‘Haus der Zukunft’). However, the result of these projects was that the used material combination (silica gel and water) is not suitable for heat storage at the desired temperature levels for space heating. Therefore, this study was carried out using the material characteristics of a different sorption material (FAM-Z01 by Mitsubishi) which is available on the market but has not been used for storage applications because of its high costs. The purpose of this study is to show the possibilities of closed-cycle sorption heat storage with reasonable material properties knowing that for a market introduction of such a system more material research is necessary in order to identify a material with good properties but at reasonable costs. 34 pages
Simulations of Systems with Chemical and Sorption Stores
Report B6 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.18MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Chris Bales
Three systems with sorption or chemical storage have been simulated with the same boundary conditions as other stores using water or phase change materials. The buildings, including heat distribution system, hot water load, climate were all the same, as were the models used for the collector circuit. This report gives a brief background to these simulations and the target functions used, while the description of the simulation models and results for these three systems are described in three sub-reports, essentially three separate reports. 15 pages
Simulation Report - System: Monosorp
Report B6.3 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.25MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
By: Henner Kerskes, ITW
The reference combi system has been extended by an open cycle adsorption store in conjunction with a ventilation heat recovery system. Because of the high desorption temperatures required (120...180°C) the use of a highly efficient vacuum tube collector is essential for the overall efficiency of the solar heating system. 16 pages
Final Report of Subtask B “Chemical and Sorption Storage”
Report B7 of Subtask B
February 2008 - PDF 0.21MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Chris Bales
This report is the final report of a Subtask of the Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for solar and low energy buildings” of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency. 23 pages
Laboratory Tests of Chemical Reactions and Prototype Sorption Storage Units
Report B4 of Subtask B
January 2008 - PDF 1.4MB - Posted: 2008-04-10
Editor: Chris Bales
The work reported here shows that significant advances have been made in terms of chemical and sorption storage. New concepts have been developed, not only to the laboratory prototype stage but even to successful field trials. 55 pages
Laboratory Prototypes of Thermo-Chemical and Sorption Storage Units
Report B3 of Subtask B
June 2007 - PDF 0.98MB - Posted: 2007-06-01
Editor: Chris Bales
This technical report provides detailed results on four different prototype storage units tested in SHC Task 32, Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The key figures for the prototypes are presented together with projected sizes and heat storage densities for hypothetical stores with 70 and 1000 kWh storage for single family homes. In the final section of the report, the prototypes are compared in terms of energy density and material cost. 34 pages
Chemical and Sorption Storage - Selection of Concepts
Report B1 of Subtask B
May 2005 - PDF 0.4MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Chris Bales
This report is part of Subtask B of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on adsoprtion or absorption processes and on thermochemical reactions. The density of storage for these techniques compared to that of water is theoretically 2 to 10 depending on the temperature range of comparison. 23 pages
Thermal Properties of Materials for Thermo-chemical Storage of Solar Heat
Report B2 of Subtask B
May 2005 - PDF 0.35MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Chris Bales
This report is part of Subtask B of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on adsoprtion or absorption processes and on thermochemical reactions. Adsorption promising techniques based on silicagel or zeolite materials, long time forgotten for solar energy, have been investigated in Task 32. Chemical reactions adapted to storage of solar heat for the purpose of heating a building have also been looked at.

Subtask C: Phase Change Materials

Laboratory Prototypes of PCM Storage Units - Improvements since Report C3
Report C4 of Subtask C
March 2008 - PDF 1.14MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
In Report C4 additional analysis compared to Report C3 of the systems of Lleida University, Spain and University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland in Yverdon-les-Bains/Switzerland (HEIG-VD) are presented. 36 pages
Simulation Models of PCM Storage Units
Report C5 of Subtask C
March 2008 - PDF 1.7MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
In the course of IEA SHC Task 32 the following simulation models were developed:
- Two tank heat storage models with PCM containers of different shapes (plates, cylinders, spheres) with variable size and number (Type 840 and Type 860). Different PCMs can be chosen and the models include the subcooling and the hysteresis behavior of the PCM.
- In the Type 860 of Bony (HEIVG) the internal heat transfer by convection in the liquid PCM is accounted for.
- The tank model of Heinz and Puschnig (IWT, Type 840) can also be filled completely with PCM slurry that can be used as heat carrier
- One model (Type 841) OF Heinz (IWT) with an immersed heat exchanger into a PCM container
- One tank model (Type 185 of Schultz, DTU) for seasonal heat storage with PCM in subcooled state
83 pages
System Simulation Report of PCM Storage Units
Report C6 of Subtask C
March 2008 - PDF 0.2MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
Due to the developed simulation modules for PCM stores of various kinds and the TRNSYS system simulations developed in IEA SHC Task 26 and Task 32 it was possible to carry out detailed systems analysis for the behaviour of PCM stores in different applications compared to water stores. The main application focused at in Task 32 was a solar combisystem, defined in Subtask A, Report A2. This system was used unchanged by HEIG-VD and the University of Lleida Spain and slightly altered ba the UDTI, Denmark. At Graz University of Technology the applications was a conventional heating system, were the PCM heat storage was used to reduce the boiler cycling rate. 16 pages
System Simulation Report - System: PCM-Water Store
Report C6.4 of Subtask C
March 2008 - PDF 3.17MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
By: Cristian Solé and Luisa F. Cabeza
It is well known that the use of Phase Change Materials (PCM) in Domestic Hot Water Tanks (DHWT) reports some advantages for the system. One advantage is the capability of the PCM to reheat the amount of cold water surrounding the PCM after a partial or total unload of the tank without external heat input. Another one is that the temperature of the water surrounding the PCM is kept constant a longer period of time or decreases slower than the water with no interaction with the changed PCM. 40 pages
Final Report of Subtask C “Phase Change Materials”
Report C7 of Subtask C
March 2008 - PDF 0.26MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
This report is the final report of a Subtask of the Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for solar and low energy buildings” of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency. 29 pages
System Simulation Report - System: PCM with Supercooling
Report C6.2 of Subtask C
January 2008 - PDF 0.21MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
By: Jørgen M. Schultz
The system is designed for 100% coverage by solar of both domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating in a low energy single family house according to the passive house standard. This is achieved by means of a seasonal phase change material (PCM) storage combined with a small DHW tank. The PCM storage is subdivided into several sub-volumes. The system benefits from the supercooling as the PCM when melted can cool down, e.g. due to heat loss, to surrounding temperature in its liquid phase preserving the energy related to the heat of fusion. 17 pages
System Simulation Report - System: PCM storage to reduce cycling rates for boilers
Report C6.3 of Subtask C
December 2007 - PDF 1.6MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
By: Andreas Heinz
At the Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz University of Technology, the possibility to reduce the start-stop cycles of boilers by coupling the boiler with a storage tank was investigated within a national project (Heinz et al. 2006). A more detailed description of this work, including an analysis of the annual emissions caused by the start-stop operation can be found in (Heinz, 2007). 12 pages
System Simulation Report - System : HEIG-VD-W and HEIG-VD-PCM
Report C6.1 of Subtask C
December 2007 - PDF 1.22MB - Posted: 2008-05-13
By: Stéphane Citherlet and Jacques Bony
This system was design for a single family house to provide energy for the space heating and the domestic hot water (DHW). The water storage tank can contain phase change material (PCM – yellow part see figure here under), but not in the upper part of the tank to get enough power to provide the DHW. The global ratio of PCM is about 50% in volume. The solar collector loop of this installation is a drain back system. The storage tank, space heating and solar loop use water as heat transfer fluid. DHW preparation is done with an external flat plate heat exchanger. The space heating demand is fulfilled by solar energy with an auxiliary gas boiler.
Laboratory Prototypes of PCM Storage Units
Report C3 of Subtask C
May 2007 - PDF 1.15MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
This report is part of Subtask C of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on phase change materials or “PCMs”. The density of storage compared to water is theoretically 1.2 to 5 depending on the temperature range of comparison.
Small temperature differences will favor PCM solutions, where as larger temperature ranges, 30 to 60 K and more will probably favor sensible storage in water. 42 pages
Storage Based on Phase Change Materials (PCM) - Selection of Concepts
Report C1 of Subtask C
February 2005 - PDF 0.13MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
This report is part of Subtask C of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on phase change materials or “PCMs”. The topic of PCM is not completely new for solar energy storage but the way Task 32 has handled it is new. From material to system and simulation, the process was application oriented: a solar combisystem has a target. Can PCM storage do better than water tanks? 13 pages
Inventory of Phase Change Materials (PCM)
Report C2 of Subtask C
February 2005 - PDF 0.56MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Wolfgang Streicher
This report is part of Subtask C of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on phase change materials or “PCMs”. The topic of PCM is not completely new for solar energy storage but the way Task 32 has handled it is new. From material to system and simulation, the process was application oriented: a solar combisystem has a target. Can PCM storage do better than water tanks? 32 pages

Subtask D: Water Storage

Simulation and Optimization Report - Maxlean Concept
March 2008 - PDF 2.25MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
By: Robert Haberl, Peter Vogelsanger, Thomas Letz
This report is part of Subtask D of the Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency dealing with solutions of storage based on water. Water tank storage is still the state-of-the-art way to store solar energy between 20 and 100C. There is however some potential for further improvements of storage in water tanks and of combisystems with water tank storage. 71 pages
Review of Ideas to Improve Water Tank Storage
Report D1 of Subtask D
December 2007 - PDF 0.09MB - Posted: 2008-03-11
Editor: Jean-Christophe Hadorn
This report presents ideas for improving water tank storage that Task 32 has addressed or proposed for future work. 12 pages
Experiments with Vertical Plates for Temperature Stratification in a Heat Storage Tank
Report D2 of Subtask D
October 2007 - PDF 0.37MB - Posted: 2008-05-26
By: Peter Vogelsanger, Heinze Marty and Michael Cinelli
Experiments were carried out to test an inexpensive set-up to enhance temperature stratification in water heat stores or water heater stores. The set-up essentially consists of an arrangement of two vertical parallel plates open to the storage volume on all or most sides with the inlet flow entering the gap between the plates through a flange on one of them. Any difference in temperature or density between the entering flow and the fluid in the store will allow it to propagate vertically between the plates in reaction to the differing buoyancy of the respective fluids. 18 pages
Legionella in Combisystems Tanks
May 2005 - PDF 0.13MB - Posted: 2008-01-02
Editor: Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza
16 pages